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United States Patent 6,251,606
Hseu ,   et al. June 26, 2001

Gene sequence and method for distinguishing cordyceps sinensis

Abstract

The present invention utilizes the singularity of the 18S rRNA gene sequence of the Cordyceps sinensis between the NS3/NS6 primer pair as the index for distinguishing the Cordyceps sinensis from other Cordyceps species.


Inventors: Hseu; Ruey-Shyang (Taipei, TW), Chen; Chih-Shang (Taipei, TW)
Assignee: Hseu; Ruey-Shyang (Taipei, TW)
Lo; Soon (Taipei, TW)
Wang; Shih-Jen (Yun Lin Hsian, TW)
Appl. No.: 09/450,656
Filed: November 30, 1999


Current U.S. Class: 435/6 ; 424/195.15; 424/254.1; 435/91.1; 435/91.2; 514/169
Current International Class: C12Q 1/68 (20060101); C07H 21/04 (20060101); C07H 21/00 (20060101); C12Q 001/68 ()
Field of Search: 435/6,91.1,91.2 424/195.1,254.1 514/169

References Cited

U.S. Patent Documents
5582828 December 1996 Lin et al.
Primary Examiner: Jones; W. Gary
Assistant Examiner: Taylor; Janell E.
Attorney, Agent or Firm: Birch, Stewart, Kolasch & Birch, LLP

Claims



What is claimed is:

1. Gene sequences for distinguishing Cordyceps sinensis, by judging a PCR-amplified 18S rRNA gene between primer pairs NS3/NS6, comprising:

the DNA sequence (SEQ ID NO: 1) between the primer pairs NS3/NS4; and

the DNA sequence (SEQ ID NO: 2) between the primer pairs NS5/NS6.

2. A method for distinguishing Cordyceps sinensis by:

obtaining an 18S rRNA gene by PCR;

amplifying an extracted DNA from a specimen through primer pairs NS3/NS4 and NS5/NS6;

applying a DNA sequencer to order gene sequences of PCR amplified products;

and comparing the gene sequences of the PCR amplified products with the gene sequences of claims to determine whether the specimen is a genuine Cordyceps sinensis.

3. The method of claim 2, wherein the DNA sequencer is an Applied Biosystems 373 DNA sequencer.
Description



BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

The present invention utilizes the singularity of the 18S rRNA gene sequence of the Cordyceps sinensis between the NS3/INS6 primer pair as the index for distinguishing the Cordyceps sinensis from other Cordyceps species.

2. Description of the Prior Art

In the literatures, the study of Cordyceps sinensis is only limited on species collection, description, and identification. For some Cordyceps sinensis with medical value, the research can only be restricted in the analysis of active ingredients metabolized therefrom for therapy purposes. However, due to the unclearness in the sexuality and the life cycle of the Cordyceps sinensis and the related species and due to the collection and storage difficulty, cultivating a stroma is still hard to achieve. Therefore, a clear picture in classification and a genuine relationship between the sex generation and the sexless generation can't be clearly understood so far. Such an unclearness in understanding genuine Cordyceps sinensis makes dangerous of wide-spreading usage upon so-called healthy Cordyceps sinensis' products in Chinese communities all over the world. It is quite possible that the manufacturers use fake Cordyceps sinensis to produce the products, or the customers have the so-called healthy products without active ingredients of the Cordyceps sinensis. Either of them detours a positive cycle in using the Cordyceps sinensis and makes less benefit from using the Cordyceps sinensis.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

In view of lacking a standard process to identify real Cordyceps sinensis, the present invention introduces a new methodology of distinguishing Cordyceps sinensis by rRNA gene analysis. In a prior art, a 18S rRNA gene is successfully used to distinguish various fungi. Therefore, the gene analysis of the present invention also focuses on the 18S rRNA gene. Various specimens of candidate Cordyceps sinensis are collected at different locations and timings so that the characteristics of those candidate Cordyceps sinenis can be clearly observed. Further, specimens used in the present invention also include other Cordyceps, so-called Cordyceps sinensis reserved in some fungi centers, and candidate Cordyceps identified to be relatives of Cordyceps sinensis by a Gen Bank. By analyzing the data sorting from those candidate Cordyceps sinensis, the exclusive characteristics of a genuine Cordyceps sinensis can then be obtained.

According to the present invention, DNA extracts of all specimens are sent to PCR amplification of the 18S rRNA gene by well-known primer pairs as NS1(SEQ ID NO: 23)/NS2, NS3(SEQ ID NO: 24)/NS4(SEQ ID NO: 25), NS5/NS6(SEQ ID NO: 27) and NS7(SEQ ID NO: 28)/NS8(SEQ ID NO: 29). The gene sequences of the products from the PCR amplification are then determined by an automatic sequencing device. Then, comparisons between a genuine Cordyceps sinensis specimen and those candidate Cordyceps sinensis are carried out according to gene sequences. By the gene sequences, it is found that the 18S rRNA gene sequence of the genuine Cordyceps sinensis between primer pair NS3/NS6 is particularly different to those observed in relative Cordyceps. Based on the target sequence, a real Cordyceps sinensis can be easily determined. That is, the target sequence can be used as the flag to distinguish the Cordyceps sinensis. Further, after the 18S rRNA gene sequence between primer pair NS3/NS6 is determined as the flag to distinguish the Cordyceps sinensis, any fungus can be distinguished by amplifying its DNA extract by primer pairs NS3/NS4 and NS5/NS6 to determine the related PCR reaction of its 18S rRNA gene, by locating a gene sequence upon the PCR product with respect to the target gene sequence, and by comparing the gene sequence with the target gene sequence of the genuine Cordyceps sinensis. Following are operational embodiments upon above specimens. In the analysis, the 18S rRNA gene sequence between primer pairs NS1/NS2 and NS&/NS8 is not listed due to its vague role in the distinguishing process.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE TABLES AND DRAWINGS

The present invention will now be specified with reference to its preferred embodiments illustrated in the Tables and drawings, in which

FIG. 1 shows locations of primer pairs in the 18S rRNA genes;

FIG. 2 shows part of 18S rRNA gene sequences (SEQ ID NO: 3) in Table 5 between the primer pair NS3/NS4;

FIG. 3 shows part of 18S rRNA gene sequences (SEQ ID NO: 4)in Table 5 between the primer pair NS5/NS6;

FIG. 4 shows part of 18S rRNA gene sequences (Lines 1-8, SEQ ID NO: 5; Lines 9, 10, 13, SEQ ID NO:6; Line 11, SEQ ID NO:7; Line 12, SEQ ID NO:8; Line 14, SEQ ID NO:9; Line 15, SEQ ID NO:10; Lines 16-18, SEQ ID NO:11) of Cordyceps strains between the primer pair NS3/NS4;

FIG. 5 shows part of 18S rRNA gene sequences (Lines 1-5, SEQ ID NO: 12; Line 6, SEQ ID NO:13; Line 7, SEQ ID NO:14; Line 8, SEQ ID NO:15; Line 9, SEQ ID NO:16; Line 10, SEQ ID NO:17; Line 11, SEQ ID NO:18, Line 12, SEQ ID NO:19; Line 13, SEQ ID NO:20; Line 14, SEQ ID NO:21; Line 15, SEQ ID NO:22) of Cordyceps strains between the primer pair NS5/NS6;

FIG. 6 is the phylogenetic relationship of Table 8;

FIG. 7 is the phylogenetic relationship of Table 9;

FIG. 8 is the phylogenetic relationship of Table 10; and

FIG. 9 shows the target 18S rRNA gene sequence (SEQ ID NOS; 1-2) of a genuine Cordyceps sinensis between the primer pair NS3/NS6.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT

The invention disclosed herein is directed to a method for distinguishing Cordyceps sinensis. In the following description, numerous details are set forth in order to provide a thorough understanding of the present invention. It will be appreciated by one skilled in the art that variations of these specific details are possible while still achieving the results of the present invention. In other instances, well-known components are not described in detail in order not to unnecessarily obscure the present invention.

Table 1 to Table 3 list specimens of Cordyceps sinensis, specimens of Cordyceps and strains of Cordyceps used in the present invention. In Table 1, each specimen of Cordyceps sinensis is further divided into a sclerotium part and a stroma part. Thereby, the difference between the sclerotium and the stroma in the same specimen can be identified. Firstly, each specimen is cultivated for extracting DNA. The DNA is then PCR amplified separately by various primer pairs listed in Table 4 for obtaining the 18S rRNA gene. Refer to FIG. 1 for correct action positions of respective primer pairs upon 18S rRNA gene. While PCR amplifying in accordance with the present invention, the reaction conditions are 2 minutes at 98.degree. C. for the initial denaturing temperature, 45 seconds at 95.degree. C. for the denaturing temperature, 45 seconds at 52.degree. C. for the annealing denaturing temperature, 35 cycles under a 2-minute 72.degree. C. extension temperature per cycle, and finally 10 minutes at 72.degree. C. for the final denaturing temperature. The product after PCR amplification is then gone through a high pure PCR product purification kit for purification, gene ordered by an Applied Biosystems 373 DNA sequencer, and analyzed by a tag dye deoxy terminor cycle sequencing kit. The ordered gene sequence is then reported to the European Molecular Biology Laboratory for acquiring an accession number. The corresponding accession numbers for specimens listed in Tables 1, 2, and are shown in Tables 5, 6, and 7 respectively. Primer pairs NS3, NS4 & NS5, and NS6 are recorded separately in Tables 5, 6 and 7 respectively. In Table 2, the famous Saccharomyces cerevisiae is already known so that no new accession numbers is recorded in Table 6.

It is obvious that the complete 18S rRNA gene sequences of a Cordyceps sinensis specimen are extremely long and only part of the sequences are helpful for identifying a genuine Cordyceps sinensis. After the analysis of the present invention, it is found that only the 18S rRNA gene sequences between the primer pairs NS3/NS4 and NS5/NS6 are valuable for the identification. FIG. 2 shows part of 18S rRNA gene sequences in Table 5 between the primer pair NS3/NS4. From columns 1 to 16 are listed specimens symbolized as Cs824af, Cs824b, W1023f, Cs7528A1, Cs7528A2, Cs7528Jf, Cs7528Jh, Cs7528Hf, Cs7528Hh, T1023f, S1023f, H1023f, K1023f, Cs1014df, Cs824ab, and Cs824ab respectively. FIG. 3 shows part of 18S rRNA gene sequences in Table 5 between the primer pair NS5/NS6. From columns 1 to 15 are listed specimens symbolized as Cs824af, Cs824ab, W1023f, Cs7528A1, Cs7528A2, Cs7528Jf, Cs7528Jh, Cs7528Hf, Cs7528Hh, T1023f, S1023f, H1023f, K1023f, Cs1014df, and Cs1014db respectively. As shown in FIG. 2 and FIG. 3, all the Cordyceps sinensis specimens have the same 18S rRNA gene sequences between the primer pairs NS3/NS6. It is thus proved that all these wild Cordyceps sinensis specimens of Table 1 are originated from the same fungi species, even the collection source and timing are different. Also, it is proved that sclerotium and the stroma of the Cordyceps sinensis specimen keep the same 18S rRNA gene sequences, so that they are originated from the same fungi species.

According to the present invention, the nature of the Cordyceps sinensis and the 18S rRNA gene sequences between the primer pairs NS3/NS6 can be observed from FIG. 2 and FIG. 3. However, it is doubtful that such evidence of gene sequences is sufficient to distinguish the genuine Cordyceps sinensis with other species. Further comparison upon the 18S rRNA gene sequences between the primer pairs NS3/NS6 among various specimens is still necessary. Aforesaid gene sequences are shown in FIG. 4 and FIG. 5. FIG. 4 shows part of 18S rRNA gene sequences of Cordyceps strains between the primer pair NS3/NS4, and FIG. 5 shows part of 18S rRNA gene sequences of Cordyceps strains between the primer pair NS5/NS6. From columns 1 to 18 of FIG. 4 are listed specimens symbolized as C. Sinensis Cs824af, Cs7528A1, Cs7528Jf, Cs7528Hh, T1023f, H1023f, C. liangshanensis CC1014af, C. militaris Cm824a, LM1207f, P. ninchukispora CCRC 31900, C. memorabilis ATCC 36743, C. militaris ATCC 26848, C. ophioglossoides ATCC 36865, Cordyceps sp. ATCC 36337, C. sinensis CCRC 36421, C. capitata (from Gen Bank), and C. ophioglossoides (from Gen Bank) respectively. From FIG. 4, difference in gene sequences between the genuine Cordyceps sinensis and other species can be located. Because only part of 18S rRNA gene sequences are shown in FIG. 4, gene sequences of ATCC 36337 and CCRC 36421 are similar to those of a genuine Cordyceps sinensis. In column 8, gene sequences of CC1014af are identical to those of a genuine Cordyceps sinensis. Question arises now that if the 18S rRNA gene sequences between the primer pairs NS3/NS6 can be used as a flag to identify a genuine Cordyceps sinensis. However, according to the observation of the present invention upon the whole gene sequences, the interested part of gene sequences have 570 base pairs. Comparing these base pairs, the ATCC 36337 has 16 base pairs different to the respective pairs of the genuine Cordyceps sinensis, and the CC1014af has 4 base pairs different to the respective pairs of the genuine Cordyceps sinensis. Therefore, even though the gene sequences can be highly coherent between the genuine Cordyceps sinensis with some fungi species, difference among the 18S rRNA gene sequences between the primer pairs NS3/NS4 still exists therebetween and is sufficient to distinguish a genuine Cordyceps sinensis.

FIG. 5 shows part of 18S rRNA gene sequences of Cordyceps strains between the primer pair NS5/NS6. From columns 1 to 15 of FIG. 5 are listed specimens symbolized as C. Sinensis Cs7528A1, Cs7528Jf, Cs7528Hh, S1023f, H1023f, C. liangshanensis CC1014af, cc1014ab, C. militaris Cm824a, LM1207f, P. ninchukispora CCRC 31900, C. memorabilis ATCC 36743, C. militaris ATCC 26848, C. ophioglossoides ATCC 36865, Cordyceps sp. ATCC 36337, and C. sinensis CCRC 36421 respectively. From FIG. 5, it can be observed that CC1014af and CC1014ab have most similar gene sequences with the genuine Cordyceps sinensis. However, among the 290 base pairs of the interested part of the 18S rRNA gene sequences between the primer pairs NS5/NS6, 14 base pairs of CC1014af and CC1014ab exist to be different to the respective base pairs of the genuine Cordyceps sinensis. So, difference between the genuine Cordyceps sinensis with some fungi species can still be told. From the gene sequences shown in FIG. 4 and FIG. 5, a conclusion can be made that the 18S rRNA gene sequences between the primer pairs NS3/NS6 do present important features suitable for being used as a flag to distinguish a genuine Cordyceps sinensis among fungi species.

By providing the aforesaid methodology of the present invention, a genuine Cordyceps sinensis can be told by judging the 18S rRNA gene sequences between the primer pairs NS3/NS6. Following will verify the species of the Cordrceps sinensis by analyzing the phylogenetic relationship, for furier ascertaining the application of the present invention. The analysis will focus on the relationship study of Cordyceps listed in Tables 1-3 and those in the Gen bank. As listed in Table 8, the 18S rRNA gene sequences of Cordyceps sinensis between the primer pairs NS3/NS6 are ordered according to the Gen bank by an Applied Biosystems 373 DNA sequencer. Then, the S. cerevisiae is applied as the out group to calculate the phylogenetic relationship by PAUP4.0 (Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony 4.0) and the phylogenetic relationship is established by Tree View 3.0 (Diving of Environmental and Evolutionary Biology IBLS). Observed from FIG. 6, it is verified that all Hypocreales including the Cordyceps sinensis are unique grouped. In addition, the fungi listed in Tables 9 and 10 are also ordered and analyzed to have the phylogenetic relationships shown in FIG. 7 and FIG. 8, respectively. In FIG. 7, an H. luta is used as the out group to analyze the 18S rRNA gene sequences between the primer pairs NS3/NS4. On the other hand, in FIG. 8, an A. terveus is used as the out group to analyze the 18S rRNA gene sequences between the primer pairs NS5/NS6. As shown in FIG. 7 and FIG. 8, all the specimens of the present invention provided upon different sources and timings belong to the same group, so that a unique species is verified. Though the C. liangshanensis has the closer relationship with the genuine Cordyceps sinensis, yet small difference in between can still be told. By providing the results shown from FIG. 6 to FIG. 8, it is proved that the specimens of the present invention are all genuine Cordyceps sinensis, even from different sources.

According to the aforesaid description, it is further verified that the 18S rRNA gene sequences between the primer pairs NS3/NS6 shown in FIG. 9, in accordance with the present invention can be used as a flag to determine a genuine Cordyceps sinsis.

While the present invention has been particularly shown and described with reference to preferred embodiments, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes in form and detail may be without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention.

TABLE 1 The specimens of Cordyceps sinensis used in this invention. Specimen Tissue used to Species No. prepare DNA Source Location Date Cordyceps Cs1014df Stroma Obtained from Nantong Tonghui Edible Oct. 1994 sinensis Fungi Trading Center of Jiangsu, China C. sinensis Cs1014db Sclerotium Obtained from Nantong Tonghui Edible Oct. 1994 Fungi Trading Center of Jiangsu, China C. sinensis Cs824af Sclerotium Sze Chuan, China Purchased at Chinese drug store in Taipei Oct. 1995 C. sinensis C5824ab Sclerotium Sze Chuan, China Purchased at Chinese drug store in Taipei Oct. 1995 C. sinensis Cs824b Sclerotium Sze Chuan, China Purchased at Chinese drug store in Taipei Oct. 1995 C. sinensis Cs7528A1 Sclerotium Tibet, China Collected in Tibet, China May 1997 C. sinensis Cs7528A2 Stroma Tibet, China Collected in Tibet, China May 1997 C. sinensis Cs7528Jf Stroma Purchased at Chinese drug store in Taipei May 1997 C. sinensis Cs7528Jh Sclerotium Purchased at Chinese drug store in Taipei May 1997 (head) C. sinensis Cs7528Hf Stroma Purchased at Chinese drug store in Taipei May 1997 C. sinensis Cs7528Hh Sclerotium Purchased at Chinese drug store in Beijing May 1997 (head) C. sinensis W1023f Stroma Sze Chuan, China Purchased at Chinese drug store in Taipei Sep. 1996 C. sinensis S1023f Stroma Tibet, China Purchased at Chinese drug store in Taipei Oct. 1998 C. sinensis T1023f Stroma Qinghai, China Purchased at Chinese drug store in Taipei Oct. 1998 C. sinensis H1023f Stroma Qinghai, China Purchased at Chinese drug store in Qinghai, Oct. 1998 China C. sinensis K1023f Stroma Purchased at Chinese drug store in Taipei Oct. 1998

TABLE 2 The Cordyceps spp. specimens and Saccharomyces cerevisiae used in this invention. Tissue used to Species Specimen No. prepare DNA Source Location Date Cordyceps militaris Cm824a stroma China purchased at Chinese drug store in May 1997 Taipei C. militaris Cm1014c stroma China purchased at Chinese drug store in May 1997 Taipei C. militaris LM1207f stroma China obtained from Sericultural Science May 1997 Research Institute of Jilin, China C. liangshanensis CC1014af stroma China C. liangshanensis CC1014ab sclerotium China Saccharomyces Y824a cells this laboratory purchased in Taipei 1991 cerevisiae

TABLE 3 The Cordyceps strains and reference strains used in this invention. Species Collection No. Source Cordyceps memorabilis ATCC 36743 American Type Culture Collection, U.S.A. C. militaris ATCC 26848 American Type Culture Collection, U.S.A. C. ophioglossoides ATCC 36865 American Type Culture Collection, U.S.A. Cordyceps sp. ATCC 36337 American Type Culture Collection, U.S.A. C. sinensis CCRC 36421 Culture Collection & Research Center, Hsinchu, Taiwan. Phytocordyceps CCRC 31900 Culture Collection & ninchukispora Research Center, (reference species) Hsinchu, Taiwan.

TABLE 4 List of primers used in this invention. Primer designation Primer sequences (5'.fwdarw.3') Position N S 1 GTAGTCATATGCTTGTCTC 18S rRNA gene 1-19 N S 3 GCAAGTCTGGTGCCAGCAGCC 18S rRNA gene 553-573 N S 4 CTTCCGTCAATTCCTTTAAG 18S rRNA gene 1131-1150 N S 5 AACTTAAAGGAATTGACGGAAG 18S rRNA gene 1131-1148 N S 6 GCATCACAGACCTGTTATTGCCTC 18S rRNA gene 1413-1435 N S 7 GAGGCAATAACAGGTCTGTGATGC 18S rRNA gene 1413-1436 N S 8 TCCGCAGGTTCACCTACGGA 18S rRNA gene 1790-1810

TABLE 5 The 18S rRNA gene sequence accession numbers of Cordyceps sinensis specimens. NS3,4 NS5,6 Species Specimen No. Acc. No. Acc. No. Cordyceps sinensis Cs1014df .largecircle. .largecircle. C. sinensis Cs1014db .largecircle. .largecircle. C. sinensis Cs824af AJ238505 .largecircle. C. sinensis Cs824ab .largecircle. .largecircle. C. sinensis Cs824b AJ238506 .largecircle. C. sinensis Cs7528A1 AJ009676 AJ007566 C. sinensis Cs7528A2 AJ009677 AJ007567 C. sinensis Cs7528Jf AJ009678 AJ007568 C. sinensis Cs7528Th AJ009679 AJ007569 C. sinensis Cs7528Hf AJ238504 .largecircle. C. sinensis Cs7S28Hh AJ238689 .largecircle. C. sinensis W1023f AJ238690 .largecircle. C. sinensis T1023f AJ238691 .largecircle. C. sinensis S1023f AJ238691 .largecircle. C. sinensis H1023f AJ238693 .largecircle. C. sinensis K1023f AJ238692 .largecircle. .largecircle.: Pending

TABLE 6 The 18S rRNA gene sequence accession numbers of Cordyceps spp. specimens. Specimen NS3,4 NS5,6 Species No. Acc. No. Acc. No. Cordyceps militaris Cm824a AJ009682 AJ007571 C. militaris Cm1014C AJ009683 AJ242435 C. militaris LM1207f AJ009681 AJ242436 C. liangshanensis CC1014af AJ238503 AJ239070 C. liangshanensis CC1014ab AJ238503 AJ239071

TABLE 7 The 18S rRNA gene sequence accession numbers of Cordyceps spp. strains. Collection NS3,4 NS5,6 Species No. Acc. No. Acc. No. Cordyceps memorabilis ATCC 36743 AJ238501 AJ242432 C. militaris ATCC 26848 AJ238500 AJ242430 C. ophioglossoides ATCC 36865 AJ238498 AJ242431 Cordyceps sp. ATCC 36337 AJ242429 AJ242433 Phytocordyceps CCRC 31900 AJ238499 AJ242434 ninchukispora C. sinensis CCRC 36421 AJ238502 AJ239072 C. sinensis CsRSbH1 AJ009680 AJ067570 C. sinensis RS2 AJ133815 AJ242427 C. sinensis RS3 AJ238685 .largecircle. C. sinensis RS4-2 AJ238686 .largecircle. C. sinensis RS5-2 AJ238687 AJ242427 C. sinensis RS6-3 AJ238688 AJ242428 C. sinensis MCs1014b AJ238496 AJ242437 C. sinensis MCs119 AJ238497 .largecircle. .largecircle.: Pending

TABLE 8 The species and sequences accession numbers used in FIG. 6. Accession Species Number Order Source Cordyceps sinensis AJ009676 Hypocreales inventor Cs7528A1 C. sinensis AJ238502 Hypocreales inventor CCRC 36421 C. ophioglossoides AJ238498 Hypocreales inventor ATCC 36865 C. memorabilis AJ238501 Hypocreales inventor ATCC 36743 C. militaris AJ009683 Hypocreales inventor ATCC 26848 C. liangshanensis AJ238503 Hypocreales inventor CC1014af P. ninchukispora AF238499 Hypocreales inventor CCRC 31900 Saccharomyces J01353 Saccharomycetales GenBank cerevisiae Gaeumannomyces AF050488 Diapothales GenBank graminis Hypoxylon atroroseum U32411 Xylariales GenBank Daldinia concentrica U47828 Xylariales GenBank Sclerotinia sclerotiorum X69850 Leotiales GenBank Neurospora crassa NCRRNAS Sordariales GenBank Aspergillus terreus AB008409 Eurotiales GenBank Claviceps purpurea U44040 Hypocreales GenBank Claviceps paspali U32401 Hypocreales GenBank Hypomyces polyporius U32410 Hypocreales GenBank Sphaerostilbella U32415 Hypocreales GenBank aureonitens Neocosmospora U32414 Hypocreales GenBank vasinfecta Melanospora zamiae U78356 Melanosporales GenBank Hypocrea lutea U00IFOC Hypocreales GenBank Cordyceps capitata U44041 Hypocreales GenBank Cordyceps U46881 Hypocreales GenBank ophioglossoides Xylaria carpophila Z49785 Xylariales GenBank Xylaria hypoxhlon U20378 Xylariales GenBank

TABLE 9 The species and sequences accession numbers used in FIG. 7. Accession Species Number Source Cordyceps sinensis Cs7528A1 AJ009676 inventor C. sinensis Cs7528Jf AJ009678 inventor C. sinensis Cs7528Hf AJ238504 inventor C. sinensis Cs824b AJ238506 inventor C. sinensis W1023f AJ238690 inventor C. sinensis K1023f AJ238692 inventor C. sinensis sisH1023f AJ238693 inventor C. sinensis CCRC 36421 AJ238502 inventor C. ophioglossoides ATCC 36865 AJ238498 inventor C. memorabilis ATCC 36743 AJ238501 inventor Cordyceps sp. ATCC 36337 AJ242429 inventor C. militaris ATCC 26848 AJ009683 inventor C. militaris Cm824a AJ009682 inventor C. militaris LM1207f AJ009681 inventor C.liangshanensis CC1014af AJ238503 inventor P. ninchukispora CCRC 31900 AJ238499 inventor Hypocrea lutea U00IFOC GenBank 0 capitata U44041 GenBank C. ophioglossoides U46881 GenBank

TABLE 10 The species and sequences accession numbers used in FIG. 8. Accession Species Number Order Source Cordyceps sinensis AJ007566 Hypocreales inventor Cs7528A1 C. sinensis Cs7528Jf AJ007568 Hypocreales inventor C. sinensis W1023f .largecircle. Hypocreales inventor C. sinensis K1023f .largecircle. Hypocreales inventor C. sinensis S1023f .largecircle. Hypocreales inventor C. sinensis AJ239072 Hypocreales inventor CCRC 36421 C. ophioglossoides AJ242431 Hypocreales inventor ATCC 36865 C. memorabilis AJ242432 Hypocreales inventor ATCC 36743 Cordyceps sp. AJ242433 Hypocreales inventor ATCC 36337 C. militaris AJ242430 Hypocreales inventor ATCC 26848 C. militaris Cm824a AJ007571 Hypocreales inventor C. militaris LM1207f AJ242436 Hypocreales inventor C. liangshanensis AJ239070 Hypocreales inventor CC1014af C. liangshanensis AJ239071 Hypocreales inventor CC1014ab P. ninchukispora AJ242434 Hypocreales inventor CCRC 31900 Hypocrea lutea U00IFOC Hypocreales GenBank Saccharomyces J01353 Saccharo- GenBank cerevisiae mycetales Sclerotinia X69850 Leotiales GenBank sclerotiorum Neurnspora crassa NCRRNAS Sordariales GenBank Aspergillus terreus AB008409 Eurotiales GenBank .largecircle.: Pending

SEQUENCE LISTING <100> GENERAL INFORMATION: <160> NUMBER OF SEQ ID NOS: 29 <200> SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: <210> SEQ ID NO 1 <211> LENGTH: 579 <212> TYPE: DNA <213> ORGANISM: Cordyceps sinensis <400> SEQUENCE: 1 tctggtgcca gcagccgcgg taattccagc tccaatagcg tatattaaag ttgttgtggt 60 taaaaagctc gtagttgaac cttgggcctg gctggccggt ccgcctcacc gcgtgtactg 120 gtccggccgg gcctttccct ctgtggaacc ccatgccctt cactgggcgt ggcggggaaa 180 caggactttt actttgaaaa aattagagtg ctccaggcag gcctatgctc gaatacatta 240 gcatggaata atgaaatagg acgcgcggtt ctattttgtt ggtttctagg accgccgtaa 300 tgattaatag ggacagtcgg gggcatcagt attcaatggt cagaggtgaa attcttggat 360 ccattgaaga ctaactactg cgaaagcatt tgtcaaggat gttttcatta atcaggaacg 420 aaagttaggg gatcgaagac gatcagatac cgtcgtagtc ttaaccataa actatgccga 480 ctagggatcg gacgatgtta ttttttgact cgttcggcac cttacgagaa atcaaagtgc 540 ttgggctcca gggggagtat ggtcgcaagg ctgaaactt 579 <200> SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: <210> SEQ ID NO 2 <211> LENGTH: 370 <212> TYPE: DNA <213> ORGANISM: Cordyceps sinensis <400> SEQUENCE: 2 aataacaggt ctgtgatgcc cttagatgtt ctgggccgca cgcgcgctac actgacggag 60 ccagcgagtc ctcccttggc cggaaggccc gggtaatctt gttaaacttc gtcgtgctgg 120 ggatagagca ttgcaattat tgctcttcaa cgaggaatcc ctagtaagcg caagtcatca 180 gcttgcgttg actacgtccc tgccctttgt acacaccgcc cgtcgctact accgattgaa 240 tggctcagtg aggcgtccgg actggcccag gggggtggga aaccgccccc cagggccggg 300 aagctctcca aactcggtca tttagaggaa gtaaaagtcg taacaaggtc tccgtaggtg 360 aacctgcgga 370 <200> SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: <210> SEQ ID NO 3 <211> LENGTH: 58 <212> TYPE: DNA <213> ORGANISM: Cordyceps sinensis <220> FEATURE: <221> NAME/KEY: misc_feature <222> LOCATION: (1)..(58) <223> OTHER INFORMATION: Fig. 2 lines 1-16. <400> SEQUENCE: 3 atacattagc atggaataat gaaataggac gcgcggttct attttgttgg tttctagg 58 <200> SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: <210> SEQ ID NO 4 <211> LENGTH: 57 <212> TYPE: DNA <213> ORGANISM: Cordyceps sinensis <220> FEATURE: <221> NAME/KEY: misc_feature <222> LOCATION: (1)..(57) <223> OTHER INFORMATION: Fig. 3, lines 1-15. <400> SEQUENCE: 4 gcccgtactg ctccggcagt gcgccggctt cttagaggga ctatcggctc aagccga 57 <200> SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: <210> SEQ ID NO 5 <211> LENGTH: 58 <212> TYPE: DNA <213> ORGANISM: Cordyceps sinensis <220> FEATURE: <221> NAME/KEY: misc_feature <222> LOCATION: (1)..(58) <223> OTHER INFORMATION: Fig. 4, lines 1-8. <400> SEQUENCE: 5 tacattagca tggaataatg aaataggacg cgcggttcta ttttgttggt ttctagga 58 <200> SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: <210> SEQ ID NO 6 <211> LENGTH: 58 <212> TYPE: DNA <213> ORGANISM: Cordyceps militaris <220> FEATURE: <221> NAME/KEY: misc_feature <222> LOCATION: (1)..(58) <223> OTHER INFORMATION: Fig. 4, lines 9-10, 13. <400> SEQUENCE: 6 tacattagca tggaataata aaataggacg cgtggttcta ttttgttggt ttctagga 58 <200> SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: <210> SEQ ID NO 7 <211> LENGTH: 58 <212> TYPE: DNA <213> ORGANISM: Cordyceps memorabilis <400> SEQUENCE: 7 tacattagca tggaataatg aaataggacg cgtggttcta ttttgttggt ttctagga 58 <200> SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: <210> SEQ ID NO 8 <211> LENGTH: 58 <212> TYPE: DNA <213> ORGANISM: Cordyceps militaris <400> SEQUENCE: 8 tacattagca tggaataata aaataggacg tgtggttcta ttttgttggt ttctagga 58 <200> SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: <210> SEQ ID NO 9 <211> LENGTH: 58 <212> TYPE: DNA <213> ORGANISM: Cordyceps sp. <400> SEQUENCE: 9 tacattagca tggaataatg aaataggacg tgcggttcta ttttgttggt ttctagga 58 <200> SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: <210> SEQ ID NO 10 <211> LENGTH: 58 <212> TYPE: DNA <213> ORGANISM: Cordyceps sinensis <400> SEQUENCE: 10 tacattagca tggaataata aaataggacg cgcggttcta ttttgttggt ttctagga 58 <200> SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: <210> SEQ ID NO 11 <211> LENGTH: 58 <212> TYPE: DNA <213> ORGANISM: Cordyceps capitata <220> FEATURE: <221> NAME/KEY: misc_feature <222> LOCATION: (1)..(58) <223> OTHER INFORMATION: Fig. 4, lines 16-18. <400> SEQUENCE: 11 tacattagca tggaataatg aaataggacg tgcggttcta ttttgttggt ttctagga 58 <200> SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: <210> SEQ ID NO 12 <211> LENGTH: 52 <212> TYPE: DNA <213> ORGANISM: Cordyceps sinensis <220> FEATURE: <221> NAME/KEY: misc_feature <222> LOCATION: (1)..(52) <223> OTHER INFORMATION: Fig. 5, lines 1-5. <400> SEQUENCE: 12 atagcccgta ctgctccggc agtgcgccgg cttcttagag ggactatcgg ct 52 <200> SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: <210> SEQ ID NO 13 <211> LENGTH: 52 <212> TYPE: DNA <213> ORGANISM: Cordyceps liangshanensis <400> SEQUENCE: 13 atagcccgcc ctgctccggc ggcgcgccgg ttttttagag ggactatcgg tt 52 <200> SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: <210> SEQ ID NO 14 <211> LENGTH: 52 <212> TYPE: DNA <213> ORGANISM: Cordyceps liangshanensis <400> SEQUENCE: 14 ttacccggcc ctgctccggc ggcccgccgg tttttaagag ggactttggg tt 52 <200> SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: <210> SEQ ID NO 15 <211> LENGTH: 52 <212> TYPE: DNA <213> ORGANISM: Cordyceps militaris <400> SEQUENCE: 15 atagcctgta ttgctttggc agtacgctgg cttcttaaag ggactatcgg ct 52 <200> SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: <210> SEQ ID NO 16 <211> LENGTH: 52 <212> TYPE: DNA <213> ORGANISM: Cordyceps militaris <400> SEQUENCE: 16 atagcctgta ttgctttggc agtacgctgg cttcttagag ggactatcgg ct 52 <200> SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: <210> SEQ ID NO 17 <211> LENGTH: 52 <212> TYPE: DNA <213> ORGANISM: Phytocordyceps ninchukispora <400> SEQUENCE: 17 atagcccgta ttgctttggc agtacgccgg cttcttagag ggactatcgg ct 52 <200> SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: <210> SEQ ID NO 18 <211> LENGTH: 52 <212> TYPE: DNA <213> ORGANISM: Cordyceps memorabilis <400> SEQUENCE: 18 ctagcccgta ttgctttggc agtacgctgg cttcttagag ggactatcgg ct 52 <200> SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: <210> SEQ ID NO 19 <211> LENGTH: 52 <212> TYPE: DNA <213> ORGANISM: Cordyceps militaris <400> SEQUENCE: 19 atagcctgta ttgctttggc agtacgctgg cttcttagag ggactatcgg ct 52 <200> SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: <210> SEQ ID NO 20 <211> LENGTH: 52 <212> TYPE: DNA <213> ORGANISM: Cordyceps ophioglossoides <400> SEQUENCE: 20 atagcccgta ttgctttggc agtacgctgg cttcttagag ggactatcgg ct 52 <200> SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: <210> SEQ ID NO 21 <211> LENGTH: 52 <212> TYPE: DNA <213> ORGANISM: Cordyceps sp. <400> SEQUENCE: 21 atagtcagta ttgctatggc agtacgcggg cttcttagag ggactatcgg ct 52 <200> SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: <210> SEQ ID NO 22 <211> LENGTH: 52 <212> TYPE: DNA <213> ORGANISM: Cordyceps sinensis <400> SEQUENCE: 22 atagcccgta ttgctttggc agtacgctgg cttcttagag ggactatcgg ct 52 <200> SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: <210> SEQ ID NO 23 <211> LENGTH: 19 <212> TYPE: DNA <213> ORGANISM: primer NS1 <400> SEQUENCE: 23 gtagtcatat gcttgtctc 19 <200> SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: <210> SEQ ID NO 24 <211> LENGTH: 21 <212> TYPE: DNA <213> ORGANISM: primer NS3 <400> SEQUENCE: 24 gcaagtctgg tgccagcagc c 21 <200> SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: <210> SEQ ID NO 25 <211> LENGTH: 20 <212> TYPE: DNA <213> ORGANISM: primer NS4 <400> SEQUENCE: 25 cttccgtcaa ttcctttaag 20 <200> SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: <210> SEQ ID NO 26 <211> LENGTH: 22 <212> TYPE: DNA <213> ORGANISM: primer NS5 <400> SEQUENCE: 26 aacttaaagg aattgacgga ag 22 <200> SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: <210> SEQ ID NO 27 <211> LENGTH: 24 <212> TYPE: DNA <213> ORGANISM: primer NS6 <400> SEQUENCE: 27 gcatcacaga cctgttattg cctc 24 <200> SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: <210> SEQ ID NO 28 <211> LENGTH: 24 <212> TYPE: DNA <213> ORGANISM: primer NS7 <400> SEQUENCE: 28 gaggcaataa caggtctgtg atgc 24 <200> SEQUENCE CHARACTERISTICS: <210> SEQ ID NO 29 <211> LENGTH: 20 <212> TYPE: DNA <213> ORGANISM: primer NS8 <400> SEQUENCE: 29 tccgcaggtt cacctacgga 20

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